• Second Global Conference on Land-Ocean ConnectionsThe Second Global Conference on Land-Ocean Connections (GLOC-2) was held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 2-4 October 2013. PPT presentations are available for download in the document library.
  • Global Partnership on Nutrient ManagementThe Global Partnership on Nutrient Management provides a global platform to steer dialogue and actions to promote effective nutrient management
  • Third Intergovernmental Review on the Implementation of the GPAThe Third Intergovernmental Review Meeting on the Implementation of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities (GPA) was held in Manila, Philippines 25-26 January 2012.
  • Global Partnership on Marine LitterMarine litter crosses boundaries and can only be tackled through regional and global collaboration - the GPML seeks to protect human health and the global environment by the reduction and management of marine litter
  • WastewaterThreatening our quality of life and the ecosystems services that we depend on

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In Focus

Regional Seas Logo

The Regional Seas Conventions and Action Plans - the world's only legal framework for protecting the oceans and seas at the regional level - celebrate their landmark 40th anniversary in 2014.


Welcome to the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA).

The GPA was adopted by the international community in 1995 and “aims at preventing the degradation of the marine environment from land-based activities by facilitating the realization of the duty of States to preserve and protect the marine environment”. It is unique in that it is the only global initiative directly addressing the connectivity between terrestrial, freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems.

The GPA targets major threats to the health, productivity and biodiversity of the marine and coastal environment resulting from human activities on land and proposes an integrated, multisectoral approach based on commitment to action at local, national, regional and global levels. In an era when coastal communities are threatened by new and daunting challenges, e.g. climate change, the holistic ecosystem approach advocated by the GPA is even more relevant today than when first negotiated in 1995.

The Third Intergovernmental Review Meeting on the Implementation of the GPA provided an opportunity for national governments and regional organizations to renew its commitments to the GPA and shape its future. The adopted Manila Declaration and the Report of the IGR-3 can be found in all UN-languages in our Document Library

It’s your GPA.


Second Global Conference on Land-Ocean Connections: 2-4 October 2013

The Second Global Conference on Land - Ocean Connections (GLOC-2) was held October 2- 4, 2013, in Montego Bay, Jamaica. The United Nations Environment Programme and the Government of Jamaica were co-organizers of the conference, the second of its kind. All presentations are available in the document library.

Report of Second Global Conference on Land-Ocean Connections (GLOC-2)

GLOC-2 annexes:

Annex 1: List of participants

Annex 2: Provisional agenda

Annex 3: Speed presentations

Annex 4: Summary report of media workshop

Annex 5: Opening speech of DEPI OIC - Elizabeth Mrema

Annex 6: Address by Hon. Pickersgill, Minister of water, land, environmental and climate change - Jamaica

Annex 7: Manila Declaration progress report

Annex 8: Wastewater session agenda

Annex 9: Nutrient Management session agenda

Annex 10: Marine Litter session agenda

Annex 11: Coral Reef workshop and partnership forum agenda

Annex 12: Report of the Wastewater session

Annex 13: Report of the Marine Litter session and partnership forum

Annex 14: Report of the Nutrient session

Annex 15: Report of the Coral Reef session


More information

Latest Publication

The report “Our Nutrient World: The challenge to produce more food and energy with less pollution”
provides a global overview of the nutrient management practices and policies with their consequent
impacts on human wellbeing and natural environment. The report concludes with a clear message that humanity benefit from nutrients but the current production and use of nutrients must change to towards green growth and sustainable development.